Throughout history, humans have displayed a stunning array of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral diversities. Our understanding of these neurological differences has evolved dramatically over the centuries, and it continues to shift even today. In this blog post, we talk about the history of autism, and we'll also explore why Asperger's syndrome is no longer a standalone diagnosis.
The Dawning of Autism: Historical Roots
The etymological roots of 'autism' can be traced back to the Greek word 'autos', meaning 'self'. Its usage in a medical context was introduced by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1910, primarily to describe the self-absorbed, inward-looking aspects of schizophrenia. However, the understanding of autism as a unique neurological condition distinct from schizophrenia didn't emerge until several decades later.
Leo Kanner, an Austrian-American psychiatrist, played a crucial role in the recognition of autism as a distinct entity. In a seminal 1943 study, Kanner described 11 children who exhibited a "powerful desire for aloneness" and an "obsessive insistence on the preservation of sameness." These characteristics formed the backbone of our initial understanding of autism.
Around the same time, across the Atlantic, Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger was working independently on a similar group of children. While Asperger's observations paralleled Kanner's to a great extent, he also noted that the children he studied often displayed unique talents and intellectual abilities.
The Evolution of Autism: A Journey Through Time
The characterization and diagnostic criteria for autism have seen numerous revisions over the years, reflecting the shifts in our understanding and the complexity of this neurological diversity.
In the early days, psychologist Bruno Bettelheim erroneously linked autism to "refrigerator mothers," suggesting that cold, unloving parenting was the cause. This damaging theory has long been debunked, and we now understand that autism has biological roots, most likely involving a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Over the years, as the focus shifted from cause to identification and support, various diagnostic tools and criteria were developed. By the late 20th century, it was acknowledged that autism existed on a spectrum, with individuals varying widely in their abilities and needs. This led to the introduction of the term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in 2013.
Asperger’s Syndrome: The Rise and Fall of a Diagnosis
The term “Asperger’s syndrome”was coined by British psychiatrist Lorna Wing in the 1980s, inspired by Hans Asperger's early work. It was introduced to the DSM-4 in 1994 and was used to diagnose individuals who demonstrated the core features of autism but had no significant delay in language or cognitive development. For many years, Asperger's syndrome and autism were seen as separate diagnoses.
However, this changed with the release of the DSM-5 in 2013. In a move reflecting a better understanding of the autism spectrum, the DSM-5 folded Asperger's syndrome (and the DSM-4’s “Autistic Disorder”) into autism spectrum disorder. This was based on the recognition that the distinctions between autism and Asperger's syndrome were not clear-cut, and the two conditions shared a significant degree of overlap.
Although this change sparked controversy, it is argued that it has led to a more inclusive and accurate representation of the diversity within the autism spectrum. This change, however, does not negate the experiences of those previously diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome. Their experiences continue to shape our understanding of the autism spectrum and remind us of the importance of supporting every individual's unique needs.
In Conclusion: Autism as a Neurological Diversity
The journey of understanding autism underscores the fascinating evolution of our perception towards neurological diversities (neurodiversities).
As we move forward, let's continue to create a more inclusive society that respects and celebrates these diversities. After all, it is in the collection of these unique perspectives that the beauty of the human experience truly lies.